He did not abolish slavery completely, as Peru had 40, slaveowners, and declared " freedom of wombs " instead, which emancipated the sons of slaves; he emancipated as well the slaves of the royalists who left Lima. He also abolished the Inquisition and corporal punishment, and enacted freedom of speech.
The royalist armies that stayed in the Peruvian countryside headed to Lima, led by Canterac. In a confusing episode, there was no battle, as neither one attacked.
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Canterac changed his path to El Callao, took resources from it, and returned to his base. There was no battle during their return either. Without resources, El Callao surrendered in a few days. There is no known documentation that provides a reasonable explanation of those events. During the blockade of El Callao, he proposed that O'Higgins take control of the mission and send any spoils of battle to Chile. Peru sent a military force of 1, men. There were discussions on the future of the region: some factions wanted to join Colombia, others to join Peru, and others to become a new nation.
The Guayaquil conference took place on 26 July They had two private meetings, on that day and the following one. As there were no witnesses or minutes, the content of their discussions can only be inferred from their later actions and their letters to other people. Several reasons influenced him to resign.
Finally, he felt that only a very strong authority would be able to prevent balkanization , but refused to rule as a dictator himself. Although the war of independence had ended in the region, the Argentine Civil Wars continued. The unitarians wanted to organize the country as a unitary state centered on Buenos Aires , and the federalists , who preferred a federation of provinces.
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He took his daughter Mercedes Tomasa, who was living with her mother's family, and sailed to Europe. After a failed attempt to settle in France, he moved to Britain and then to the capital of present-day Belgium, Brussels , where he settled. He intended to live there until Mercedes completed her education and then return to Argentina. He sailed to the country when Rivadavia was deposed and replaced by the federal Manuel Dorrego , and the war ended in the interim. He intended to return anyway, as a federal government would spare him the persecution he would otherwise have received from the unitarians.
He was unable to do as he planned.
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They began to exchange friendly letters. They were helped by Mariano Balcarce. In France began a blockade of the Rio de la Plata against Rosas. He was almost blind and had many health problems because of his advanced age, but continued to write letters and keep in touch with the news from South America. Shortly after receiving the news of the Argentine victory against the Anglo-French blockade, he died, three o'clock on 17 August Between and , his corpse was buried in the crypt of the Basilica of Notre-Dame de Boulogne. He requested in his will to be taken to the cemetery without any funeral , and to be moved to Buenos Aires thereafter.
Balcarce oversaw the embalming of his remains and their temporary stay in a chapel of the city. He also sent San Martin's saber to Rosas.
Thus, the move of his remains was postponed indefinitely. Aware that there were no favorable conditions for the project, Balcarce arranged a creation of a tomb in the Boulogne-sur-Mer cemetery. The mausoleum was placed inside the Buenos Aires Metropolitan Cathedral. The unitarians still resented his refusal to aid the Supreme Directors with the Army of the Andes and his constant support to Rosas. These inaccuracies were detected and fixed by later historians.
An equestrian statue of the General was erected in Boulogne-sur-Mer ; the statue was inaugurated on 24 October , at a ceremony attended by several units from the Argentine military. The statue is 10m high, on a 4m by 6m base; it is well known to locals. Located on the beach, it was virtually untouched by the numerous bombings campaigns during both world wars. It was dedicated in and was donated by the City of Buenos Aires, Argentina. There is also an equestrian statue in Washington D. It is a copy of a statue in Buenos Aires. It was given in from Argentina.
New Delhi, India also has a San Martin road. Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic has an avenue named Jose de San Martin in his honor that connects the colonial zone to the west of the city.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. See also: Argentine War of Independence. Main article: Battle of San Lorenzo. Main article: Crossing of the Andes.
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See also: Chilean War of Independence. Main article: Battle of Chacabuco. Main article: Second Battle of Cancha Rayada. Main article: Peruvian War of Independence. Main article: Guayaquil conference. Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 7 May II, p. The Urban Roamer. Retrieved 6 July BNF Gallica in French. Retrieved 13 May La semaine dans le boulonnais in French. NYC Parks. Retrieved 26 May Retrieved 28 June Lynch, John.
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